Fault Attacks on Nonce-based Authenticated Encryption

In the context of fault attacks on nonce-based authenticated encryption, an attacker faces two restrictions. The first is the uniqueness of the nonce for each new encryption that prevents the attacker from collecting pairs of correct and faulty outputs to perform, e.g., differential fault attacks. The second restriction concerns the verification/decryption, which releases only verified plaintext. While many recent works either exploit misuse scenarios (e.g. nonce-reuse, release of unverified plaintext), we turn the fact that the decryption/verification gives us information on the effect of a fault (whether a fault changed a value or not) against it. In particular, we extend the idea of statistical ineffective fault attacks (SIFA) to target the initialization performed in nonce-based authenticated encryption schemes. By targeting the initialization performed during decryption/verification, most nonce-based authenticated encryption schemes provide the attacker with an oracle whether a fault was ineffective or not. This information is all the attacker needs to mount statistical ineffective fault attacks. To demonstrate the practical threat of the attack, we target software implementations of the authenticated encryption schemes Keyak and Ketje. The presented fault attacks can be carried out without the need of sophisticated equipment. In our practical evaluation the inputs corresponding to 24 ineffective fault inductions were required to reveal large parts of the secret key in both scenarios.

Publication Details:

Christoph Dobraunig, Stefan Mangard, Florian Mendel, Robert Primas: Fault Attacks on Nonce-based Authenticated Encryption: Application to Keyak and Ketje. SAC 2018

Fault Attacks on Masked AES with Fault Countermeasures

Implementation attacks like side-channel and fault attacks are a threat for deployed devices especially if an attacker has physical access to a device. As a consequence, devices like smart cards usually provide countermeasures against implementation attacks, such as masking against side-channel attacks and detection-based countermeasures like temporal redundancy against fault attacks. In this paper, we show how to attack implementations protected with both masking and detection-based fault countermeasures by using statistical ineffective fault attacks using a single fault induction per execution. Our attacks are largely unaffected by the deployed protection order of masking and the level of redundancy of the detection-based countermeasure. Our observations refute the intuition that masking is a viable countermeasure against biased faults, statistical fault attacks, or statistical ineffective fault attacks.

Publication Details:

Christoph Dobraunig, Maria Eichlseder, Hannes Gross, Stefan Mangard, Florian Mendel and Robert Primas: Statistical Ineffective Fault Attacks on Masked AES with Fault Countermeasures. ASIACRYPT 2018

Rasta: A cipher with low ANDdepth and few ANDs per bit

Recent developments in multi party computation (MPC) and fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) promoted the design and analysis of symmetric cryptographic schemes that minimize multiplications in one way or another. In this paper, we propose with Rasta a design strategy for symmetric encryption that has ANDdepth d and at the same time only needs d ANDs per encrypted bit. Even for very low values of d between 2 and 6 we can give strong evidence that attacks may not exist. This contributes to a better understanding of the limits of what concrete symmetric-key constructions can theoretically achieve with respect to AND-related metrics, and is to the best of our knowledge the first attempt that minimizes both metrics simultaneously. Furthermore, we can give evidence that for choices of d between 4 and 6 the resulting implementation properties may well be competitive by testing our construction in the use-case of removing the large ciphertext-expansion when using the BGV scheme.

Publication Details:

Christoph Dobraunig, Maria Eichlseder, Lorenzo Grassi, Virginie Lallemand, Gregor Leander, Eik List, Florian Mendel and Christian Rechberger: Rasta: A cipher with low ANDdepth and few ANDs per bit. CRYPTO 2018

Exploiting Ineffective Fault Inductions on Symmetric Cryptography

Since the seminal work of Boneh et al., the threat of fault attacks has been widely known and new techniques for fault attacks and countermeasures have been studied extensively. The vast majority of the literature on fault attacks focuses on the ability of fault attacks to change an intermediate value to a faulty one, such as differential fault analysis (DFA), collision fault analysis, statistical fault attack (SFA), fault sensitivity analysis, or differential fault intensity analysis. The other aspect of faults—that faults can be induced and do not change a value—has been far less researched. In case of symmetric ciphers, this area is covered by ineffective fault attacks (IFA). However, IFA relies on the ability of an attacker to induce reproducible deterministic faults like stuck-at faults for a smaller intermediate structure (e.g., one bit or byte), which is often considered to be impracticable.

As a consequence, most countermeasures against fault attacks focus on the ability of faults to change intermediate values and usually try to detect such a change (detection-based), or to destroy the exploitable information if a fault happens (infective countermeasures). Such countermeasures implicitly assume that the release of “fault-free” ciphertexts in the presence of a fault-inducing attacker does not reveal any exploitable information. In this work, we challenge this assumption and show attacks that exploit the fact that intermediate values leading to such “fault-free” ciphertexts show a non-uniform distribution, while they should be uniformly distributed. The presented attacks are entirely practical and are demonstrated to work for software implementations of AES and for a hardware co-processor.

Publication Details:

Christoph Dobraunig, Maria Eichlseder, Thomas Korak, Stefan Mangard, Florian Mendel and Robert Primas: SIFA: Exploiting Ineffective Fault Inductions on Symmetric Cryptography. CHES 2018

Robustness of CAESAR Candidates

Authenticated ciphers rely on the uniqueness of the nonces to meet their security goals. In this work, we investigate the implications of reusing nonces for three third-round candidates of the ongoing CAESAR competition, namely Tiaoxin, AEGIS and MORUS. We show that an attacker that is able to force nonces to be reused can reduce the security of the ciphers with results ranging from full key-recovery to forgeries with practical complexity and a very low number of nonce-misuse queries.

Publication Details:

Daniel Kales, Maria Eichlseder and Florian Mendel: Note on the Robustness of CAESAR Candidates. Cryptology ePrint Archive 2017

Analysis of RIPEMD-160

In this paper, we propose an improved cryptanalysis of the double-branch hash function RIPEMD-160 standardized by ISO/IEC. We show how to theoretically calculate the step differential probability of RIPEMD-160, which was stated as an open problem by Mendel et al. at ASIACRYPT 2013. Secondly, based on the method proposed by Mendel et al. to automatically find a differential path of RIPEMD-160, we construct a 30-step differential path where the left branch is sparse and the right branch is controlled as sparse as possible. To ensure the message modification techniques can be applied to RIPEMD-160, some extra bit conditions should be pre-deduced and well controlled. These extra bit conditions are used to ensure that the modular difference can be correctly propagated. This way, we can find a collision of 30-step RIPEMD-160 with complexity 267. This is the first collision attack on round-reduced RIPEMD-160. Moreover, by a different choice of the message words to merge two branches and adding some conditions to the starting point, the semi-free-start collision attack on the first 36-step RIPEMD-160 from ASIACRYPT 2013 can be improved by a factor of 215.3 to 255.1.

Publication Details:

Fukang Liu, Florian Mendel, Gaoli Wang: Collisions and Semi-Free-Start Collisions for Round-Reduced RIPEMD-160. ASIACRYPT 2017

Gimli: A cross-platform permutation

This paper presents Gimli, a 384-bit permutation designed to achieve high security with high performance across a broad range of platforms, including 64-bit Intel/AMD server CPUs, 64-bit and 32-bit ARM smartphone CPUs, 32-bit ARM microcontrollers, 8-bit AVR microcontrollers, FPGAs, ASICs without side-channel protection, and ASICs with side-channel protection.
Like other permutations with sufficiently large state sizes, Gimli can easily be used to build high-security block ciphers, tweakable block ciphers, stream ciphers, message-authentication codes, authenticated ciphers, hash functions, etc.

Publication Details:

Daniel J. Bernstein, Stefan Kölbl, Stefan Lucks, Pedro Maat Costa Massolino, Florian Mendel, Kashif Nawaz, Tobias Schneider, Peter Schwabe, François-Xavier Standaert, Yosuke Todo and Benoît Viguier: Gimli: a cross-platform permutation. CHES 2017